Ore Gottlieb

I'm a theoretical high energy astrophysicist, currently Flatiron Research/THEA Fellow in the Center for Computational Astrophysics at the Flatiron Institute.
Prior to joining CCA, I was a Rothschild/CIERA fellow at CIERA@Northwestern University.
I completed my Ph.D. with Prof. Ehud Nakar in Tel Aviv University.

I combine state-of-the-art 3D general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations with analytic calculations to:
(1) Predict new multi-messenger (gravitational-wave, electromagnetic, neutrino and cosmic-ray) signals.
(2) Interpret current multi-messenger observables such as long GRBs from binary mergers and Fast Blue Optical Transients, to decipher the underlying physics of catactlysmic phenomena.

Download my CV.

Recent research

A Unified Picture of Short and Long Gamma-ray Bursts from Compact Binary Mergers

First theoretical framework that connects the underlying physics of binary systems to GRB observations. It provides a first-pricinples explanation for the origin of the constant power GRB prompt emission and decaying extended emission for the first time. Massive post-merger accretion disks, which arise from unequal-mass NS-NS mergers, inevitably produce long GRBs such as 211211A. At the same time, both meta-stable NSs and newly formed BHs remain viable candidates as central engines for standard short GRBs.
Read more in:
Unified Picture of GRBs from Binary Mergers

BH-NS mergers

First numerical simulations that track the evolution of a black hole-neutron star merger from pre-merger to r>1e11 cm. The disk that forms after a merger of mass ratio q=2 ejects massive disk winds (3e-2−5e−2 Msol). The resulting jets feature excessive duration compared to typical short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs). This provides a natural explanation for long sGRBs such as GRB 211211A. The jet-wind interaction leads to a power-law angular energy distribution by inflating an energetic cocoon which emits strong wide-angle emission.
Read more in:
Seconds-long GRB emission
Hours-ling cocoon emission

Collapsar black holes are slowly spinning

The connection between the black hole spin and the jet power enables us to contrain the natal spin of black holes from observations of GRBs. The characteristic GRB luminosity indicates that black holes are most likely slowly spinning. Furthermore, collapsar black holes undergo substantial spin-down as the jets extract their angular momentum, converging to dimensionless spins of ~0.2.
Read more in:
Collapsar Black Holes Are Likely Born Slowly Spinning
Collapsar Gamma-ray Bursts Grind their Black Hole Spins to a Halt

New LVK-detectable Gravitational-wave Sources

A new class of noninspiral GW sources-the end states of massive stars-that can produce the brightest simulated stochastic GW burst signal in the LVK bands known to date, and could be detectable in LVK run A+. Some dying massive stars launch bipolar relativistic jets, which inflate a turbulent energetic bubble-cocoon-inside of the star, which emits quasi-isotropic GW emission in the LVK band, ~10-100 Hz, over a characteristic jet activity timescale ~10-100 s.
Read more in:
Jetted and Turbulent Stellar Deaths: New LVK-detectable Gravitational-wave Sources

GRMHD simulations of outflows from black holes to the photosphere

First 3D general-relativity magnetohydrodynamic simulations that span over six orders of magnitude in space and time. The simulations shift the evolution paradigm by revealing inevitable misalignment between the jet and the black hole rotational axis. As a result, the jet wobbles, implying lower intrinsic GRB rates and can naturally explain the long-standing mystery of quiescent times in GRB lightcurves.
Read more in:
Black Hole to Photosphere: 3D GRMHD Simulations of Collapsars Reveal Wobbling and Hybrid Composition Jets

Shocked jets in CCSNe can power FBOTs

Relativistic jets in hydrogen-rich collapsing stars can naturally explain the multi-wavelength fast blue optical transient (FBOT) observables: The jet-star interaction forms a cocoon which powers cooling emission during the first few weeks. The cocoon-CSM interaction generates synchrotron self-absorbed emission in the radio bands, featuring a steady rise on a month timescale. After a few months the relativistic outflow decelerates, enters the observer’s line of sight, peaks in radio and decays thereafter. The cocoon becomes optically thin to X-rays ∼ day after the collapse, allowing X-ray photons to diffuse from the central engine to the observer.
Read more in:
Shocked jets in CCSNe can power the zoo of fast blue optical transients

The propagation of relativistic jets in expanding media

Comprehensive analytic model of relativistic jet propagation in expanding homologous media, covering the entire jet evolution as well as a range of configurations that are relevant to binary mergers. These include low- and high-luminosity jets, unmagnetized and mildly magnetized jets, time-dependent luminosity jets, and Newtonian and relativistic head velocities. The model provides simple analytic formulae (calibrated by 3D simulations) for the jet head propagation and breakout times.
Read more in:
The propagation of relativistic jets in expanding media

Origin of neutrino null detection in GRBs

Mixing between the jet and cocoon, which is present in all types of jets, inhibits the formation of subphotospheric collisionless shocks. However, a mild magnetization may lead to the formation of collisionless subshocks, which allow efficient proton acceleration. Considering shear acceleration and diffusive shock acceleration at collimation shocks, internal shocks, shock breakout, and external shocks, we provided the first estimate for neutrino and cosmic-ray signals from self-consistent simulations of GRBs in binary neutron star (BNS) mergers and collapsars.

Read more about GRBs in BNS mergers in:
The role of jet-cocoon mixing, magnetization and shock breakout in neutrino and cosmic-ray emission from short GRBs

Read more about GRBs in collapsars in:
State-of-the-Art Collapsar Jet Simulations Imply Undetectable Subphotospheric Neutrinos

Lead-author papers

  1. O. Gottlieb, B. D. Metzger, E. Quataert, D. Issa, T. Martineau, F. Foucart, M. D. Duez, L. E. Kidder, H. P. Pfeiffer, M. A. Scheel, A Unified Picture of Short and Long Gamma-ray Bursts from Compact Binary Mergers, ApJL, 958, 33 (2023).
  2. DOI
  3. O. Gottlieb, D. Issa, J. Jacquemin-Ide, M. Liska, F. Foucart, A. Tchekhovskoy, B. D. Metzger, E. Quataert, R. Perna, D. Kasen, M. D. Duez, L. E. Kidder, H. P. Pfeiffer, M. A. Scheel, Large-scale Evolution of Seconds-long Relativistic Jets from Black Hole-Neutron Star Mergers, ApJL, 954, 21 (2023)
  4. DOI
  5. O. Gottlieb, D. Issa, J. Jacquemin-Ide, M. Liska, A. Tchekhovskoy, F. Foucart, D. Kasen, R. Perna, E. Quataert, B. D. Metzger, Hours-long Near-UV/Optical Emission from Mildly Relativistic Outflows in Black Hole-Neutron Star Mergers, ApJL, 953, 11 (2023)
  6. DOI
  7. O. Gottlieb, J. Jacquemin-Ide, B. Lowell, A. Tchekhovskoy, E. Ramirez-Ruiz, Collapsar Black Holes are Born Slowly Spinning, ApJL, 952, 32 (2023)
  8. DOI
  9. O. Gottlieb, H. Nagakura, A. Tchekhovskoy, P. Natarajan, E. Ramirez-Ruiz, J. Jacquemin-Ide, N. Kaaz, V. Kalogera, Jet-Inflated Cocoons in Dying Stars: New LIGO-Detectable Gravitational Wave Sources, ApJL, 951, 30 (2023)
  10. DOI
  11. O. Gottlieb, S. Moseley, T. Ramirez-Aguilar, A. Murguia-Berthier, M. Liska, A. Tchekhovskoy, On the jet-ejecta interaction in 3D GRMHD simulations of binary neutron star merger aftermath, ApJL, 933, 2 (2022)
  12. DOI
  13. O. Gottlieb, M. Liska, A. Tchekhovskoy, O. Bromberg, A. Lalakos, D. Giannios, P. Mosta, Black hole to photosphere: 3D GRMHD simulations of collapsars reveal wobbling and hybrid composition jets, ApJL, 933, 9 (2022)
  14. DOI
  15. O. Gottlieb, A. Tchekhovskoy, R. Margutti, Shocked jets in CCSNe can power the zoo of fast blue optical transients, MNRAS, 513, 3810 (2022)
  16. DOI
  17. O. Gottlieb, A. Lalakos, O. Bromberg, M. Liska, A. Tchekhovskoy, Black hole to breakout: 3D GRMHD simulations of collapsar jets reveal a wide range of transients, MNRAS, 150, 4962 (2022)
  18. DOI
  19. O. Gottlieb, E. Nakar, The propagation of relativistic jets in expanding media, MNRAS, 517, 1640 (2022)
  20. DOI
  21. O. Gottlieb, N. Globus, The role of jet-cocoon mixing, magnetization and shock breakout in neutrino and cosmic-ray emission from short GRBs, ApJL, 915, 4 (2021)
  22. DOI
  23. O. Gottlieb, O. Bromberg, A. Levinson, E. Nakar, Intermittent mildly magnetized jet as the source of GRBs, MNRAS, 504, 3947 (2021)
  24. DOI
  25. O. Gottlieb, E. Nakar, O. Bromberg, The structure of hydrodynamic γ-ray burst jets, MNRAS, 500, 3511 (2021)
  26. DOI
  27. O. Gottlieb, O. Bromberg, C.B. Singh, E. Nakar, The structure of weakly-magnetized γ-ray burst jets, MNRAS, 498, 3320 (2020)
  28. DOI
  29. O. Gottlieb, A. Levinson, E. Nakar, Intermittent hydrodynamic jets in collapsars do not produce GRBs, MNRAS, 495, 570 (2020)
  30. DOI
  31. O. Gottlieb, A. Loeb, Electromagnetic signals from the decay of free neutrons in the first hours of neutron star mergers, MNRAS, 493, 1753 (2020)
  32. DOI
  33. O. Gottlieb, A. Levinson, E. Nakar, High efficiency photospheric emission entailed by formation of a collimation shock in gamma-ray bursts, MNRAS, 488, 1416 (2019)
  34. DOI
  35. O. Gottlieb, E. Nakar, T. Piran, Detectability of neutron star merger afterglows, MNRAS, 488, 2405 (2019)
  36. DOI
  37. Equal contribution authors: K. P. Mooley*, A. T. Deller*, O. Gottlieb*,
    E. Nakar, G. Hallinan, S. Bourke, D. A. Frail, A., Horesh, A. Corsi, K. Hotokezaka, Superluminal motion of a relativistic jet in the neutron star merger GW170817, Nature, 561, 355 (2018)
  38. DOI
  39. O. Gottlieb, E. Nakar, T. Piran, K. Hotokezaka, A cocoon shock breakout as the origin of the γ-ray emission in GW170817, MNRAS, 479, 588 (2018)
  40. DOI
  41. O. Gottlieb, E. Nakar, T. Piran, The cocoon emission - an electromagnetic counterpart to gravitational waves from neutron star mergers, MNRAS, 473, 576 (2018)
  42. DOI

Recorded talks

Press release

Title Source
New astrophysics model sheds light on additional source of long gamma-ray bursts PHYS.org
Scientists find explanation for ‘impossible’ blast of light that hit Earth Yahoo!
msn Space.com
Dying stars' cocoons could be new source of gravitational waves Yahoo!
Sky & Telescope
Live Science
Falling stardust, wobbly jets explain blinking gamma ray bursts INDEPENDENT
Otherworldly blue lights in space are no longer shrouded in mystery Yahoo!
Sky & Telescope msn
Exactly how fast is the universe expanding? PHYS.org ScienceDaily
EFaster Than Light? Neutron-Star Merger Shot Out a Jet with Seemingly Impossible Speed SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN Yahoo!